Do you know how gold is made and how gold is produced? If not, then read this article completely today. Because in today’s article I will share with you some important information related to gold, after knowing which you will get answers to all the questions related to gold production.
Gold is a precious metal that is used to make jewelery and decorative items. This metal is very beautiful and attractive to look at which attracts the attention of the people. There is no effect of weather on this metal, meaning it is absolutely safe in every season. Therefore the demand and price of gold keeps on increasing continuously.
In today’s article, you will get to read all the information related to gold. Where you will know in detail about what is gold, how gold is made, how gold is extracted from the ground, how to find gold inside the ground, etc. So let’s go ahead and know the complete information.
What is gold?
Gold is a chemical element whose symbol is ‘Au’ (derived from the Latin word Aurum ) and its atomic number is 79 . It is one of the naturally occurring elements with the highest atomic number.
In pure form it is a lustrous, pale reddish-yellow, solid, soft, ductile and easily ductile metal. It is one of the least reactive chemical elements that remains in the solid state under standard conditions. Gold often occurs as a free element, which is in the form of small pieces or grains. It is found in the soil collected from rocks and running water. Gold is one of the hardest metals of all metals. It is also a good conductor of heat and electricity .
Gold is a very beautiful metal to look at which can be used. It is neither dirty nor is it weakened or destroyed by chemical action. Therefore it was one of the first metals to attract human attention. Gold remains a highly preferred material for making jewelry and other decorative items. Due to its unique properties, gold is such a material that is accepted everywhere in exchange for goods and services.
How is gold made or how is gold made? – How is Gold Formed
Gold is a naturally occurring element. In the womb of our earth there is a vast store of precious things, such as drinking water, metals like gold, silver, copper and petroleum minerals.
Talking about the manufacture of gold, according to scientists, gold was prepared inside the earth due to fossils. Whereas some scientists believe that millions of years ago, comets rained on the earth and all kinds of metals were absorbed deep inside the earth. It is not possible to make gold through chemistry or chemical reaction.
How is gold produced?
Gold is usually found in its purest form, although it can also be extracted from silver, copper, zinc and lead. Gold is also extracted from sea water, which is about 40th of a grain of gold from a ton of water. From the point of view of profit, it is not enough.
Gold is generally found in two types of deposits. Load or vein deposit and placer deposit. Which mining technique will be used to extract gold depends on the type of deposit. After extracting gold from mining technology, one of four main processes is used to refine it. This includes Floatation, Cyanidation, Amalgamation and Carbon-in-pulp .
Each process depends on the initial milling of the gold ore and more than one process may be used on the same batch of gold ore.
Mining Process – Gold Mining Process
- Lode or Vein Deposit – Gold mixes with another mineral in the form of a shiny stone in the vein (small cracks) of rocks, which fills the split in the surrounding rocks. Gold is obtained by drilling or blasting the surrounding rocks.
Load (large cracks) deposits go deep inside the ground. For underground mining, miners dig along the vein and then use sharp tools or small explosives to separate the gold ore from the rocks. Now the gold is collected and sent to the mill for refining .
- Placer Deposit – These are large pieces and grains of gold ore which have been washed away by the river stream from the lode deposit and are usually mixed with sand or pebbles.
There are three main methods used to mine placer deposits: Hydraulic Mining, Dredging and Power Shoveling. In all these methods, gravity is used as the basic pruning force.
Hydraulic Mining – In hydraulic mining, a machine called a hydraulic giant is used, in which a stream of water with high pressure is used to strike gold ore and remove them from the edges for ore. Now the gold ores are washed in a sluice box (box with drains for holding gold from running water) or trough (nad) which has grooves to hold the gold.
Dredging – In dredging technique, buckets are used along with a conveyor line in a large dredge (machine to clear the accumulated sludge at the bottom of the river) to take the material out of the river during mining. Through this, sand, pebbles and gold ore are extracted from the river. After this the material is filtered or sorted using water.
It separates out large sized pebbles and stones and undersize material (including gold) and puts them in a sluice box. After this the sand and dust are washed and separated and the gold settles in the grooves of the sluice box.
In small dredging machines, instead of conveyor lines, the material is taken out of the river using suction pipe and gold is obtained by the same process.
Power Shoveling – The same technique is used in Dredging and Power shoveling. In this, big machines work like bellows to remove sand and pebbles along with a large amount of gold from the river bed.
Hydraulic mining and dredging have been banned in many countries. Because they are environmentally destructive to both the land and the water stream.
Grinding – Grinding
When gold ores are extracted after mining, it is usually washed and filtered at the mine itself as a preliminary refining technique. It is then sent to mills, where it is first mixed with water and then ground into small pieces. Now this mixture is ground in a ball mill. It is a rotating cylindrical vessel that uses steel balls to crush the ore.
separating gold from ore
There are many methods, one of which is used to separate gold from ore.
Floatation – In this process air and some chemicals are used to separate the gold from the ore. The ground ore is then added to a solution containing a frothing agent (which produces froth in water), a collecting agent (which combines with gold to form an oily film that sticks to air bubbles) and an organic chemical. (which prevents contaminants from sticking to the air bubbles) is added.
Now air or gas is added to the water and bubbles start rising. Gold sticks with air bubbles. These bubbles float on the water and the gold is separated along with the layer of bubbles.
Cyanidation – In this process also some chemicals are used to separate gold from impurities. Here the land ore is kept in a tank containing a weak solution of cyanide . After this zinc is poured into the tank. A chemical reaction occurs due to zinc and eventually the gold separates from the ore. Now the gold is filtered and separated from the cyanide solution.
Amalgamation – The Amalgamation process is exactly like the Cyanidation process, but the chemicals used in it are slightly different. In this, first the land ore is placed on the plates in a solution which is covered with mercury. Mercury attracts gold and forms an alloy.
Now this alloy is heated where mercury boils and turns into gas and gold remains there. Mercury is collected and recycled and used again in this process.
Carbon-in-pulp – Cyanide is also used in this method, but here instead of zinc, carbon is used to separate gold. In this, first a pulp is prepared by mixing the land ore with water . Now cyanide is added to dissolve the gold and then carbon is added to bind with the gold.
The carbon particles are then separated from the pulp and placed in a hot caustic (corrosive) carbon solution, which separates the gold from the carbon.
If the gold is still not pure enough, it can be melted. For this gold is heated with a chemical substance called flux . This flux binds with the impurities and floats on the molten gold. The gold is then cooled down and poured into a mold to form a solid and the impurities along with the flux are separated as solid waste.
How is gold detected under the ground?
To find gold underground, geologists first use Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) to detect the presence of gold in the ground. This radar records the density of the soil of the ground and the presence of magnetic properties. On the basis of this a graph is prepared and it is estimated which elements can be under the soil. After this, a little debris is taken out by drilling inside the ground for accurate information and it is analyzed. In this way, digging the ground is started after getting the correct information about the metal present under the ground (copper, silver, gold, zinc).
Which are the largest gold producing countries?
In the year 2020, the largest producer of gold in the world was China, which produced 11 percent of the total global production of gold. While talking about gold reserves, America has the highest. At present, America has 8,135 tonnes of gold.
Here I am going to tell you the names of 10 countries with annual production of gold which are as follows:
- China – 368.3
- Russia – 331.1
- Australia – 327.8
- United States – 190.2
- Canada – 170.6
- Ghana – 138.7
- Brazil – 107.0
- Uzbekistan – 101.6
- Mexico – 101.6
- Indonesia – 100.9
What is a carat in gold?
The word carat is used in gold to measure the purity of gold. If 24 carat gold line is used with any gold, then it is absolutely pure gold of high quality. That is, the higher the carat, the more pure and expensive the gold will be.
If gold is of 24 carat then it will be called pure or 100% gold. This means that all the 24 parts in gold are pure gold and no other metal has been added to it. The gold of 24 carat will be 99.9 percent pure bright yellow gold. 24 carat is the purest form of gold, gold cannot be more than this.
24 carat gold, which is pure gold, is in a very soft state, because no other metal is used in it. Therefore it is not possible to make jewelery from 24 carat gold and it is used only in making gold bricks, plates, coins and biscuits etc.
22 carat gold is used to make jewellery . 22 carat gold is less pure than 24 carat gold and the gold content in it is only 91.6 percent. Whereas 8.3 percent other metals are added. Due to this gold becomes strong and the ductility is removed. For your information, let me tell you that 22 carat gold is also called 916 gold.
The more carat gold decreases, the more the purity of gold will decrease.
24 caratsGold – 99.99% Purity
22 caratsGold – 91.6% Purity
18 caratsGold – 75% purity
14 caratsGold – 58.33% Purity
12 caratsGold – 50% purity
10 caratsGold – 41.7% Purity
Which substance is used to increase the strength of gold?
As I told you earlier that 24 carat gold is pure but it is not possible to make jewelery from it due to its flexibility. Therefore , to increase the strength of gold, metals like copper, silver, nickel and zinc are used with it .
Why is gold so expensive?
Often the question arises in the minds of people that why is gold so expensive and what is the reason for this. Here are five reasons why gold is expensive:
- Gold is a rare metal that is found in very small quantities in the world.
- Gold does not deteriorate in any season. That is, there is no effect of rain, wind, cold, heat on it. So it can be stored for a long time.
- Gold is a very beautiful metal which attracts everyone towards it. Therefore, it is used in jewelery and valuable decoration items, due to which its demand remains high.
- The production process of gold is quite expensive, as it costs a lot of money to extract the gold from the ground and obtain it in its pure form.
- The demand for gold is always increasing, so its price also keeps increasing. Because people make safe investments by buying gold, which provides a lot of profit after the price rises in the future.
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